Turkey has a very attractive potential for wind energy applications, with actual estimations for capacity increase in the range of 10,000 - 40,000 MW depending on modelling assumptions. The wind sector is booming, with a total installed capacity in currently of only 800 MW and a steady growth rate (140 MW added in 2007, 125 MW in 2008 and 465 MW in 2009).
Hydropower is a mature and highly-sustainable renewable option in Turkey. It has been extensively exploited in recent years. Most of the opportunities for large hydro have been or are already being implemented. Nonetheless, Turkey's technically feasible hydroelectric potential is still estimated in other 36,000 MW. Most of this new capacity is expected to be mid-size run-of-river or small-size storage hydro.
World's installed geothermal power used for electricity is 11,765 MW (as of August 2013) with an annual production of 68.6 billion kWh. The first five countries in geothermal electricity generation are USA (over 80 operating geothermal plants), Philippines (8 plants), Mexico (7 plants), Indonesia (10 plants) and Italy (33 plants). Non-electricity utilization amounts to around 50,000 MW. The first five world countries in geothermal heating and spa practices are China, USA, Sweden, Turkey and Japan.
Turkey has a very attractive potential both for photovoltaic and for concentrating solar power technologies. The annual solar radiation that Turkey receives is 10,000 times higher than the domestic electricity demand. Therefore the energy production by solar source is considered a promising alternative to satisfy part of the total energy demand on the country, with an estimated production potential around 80Mtep.
The Industrial sector, with 39 percent of total final energy consumption, is the largest consumer of energy in Turkey. Since the energy costs weight between 20 and 50 percent of the total production costs, the improvement of the Energy Efficiency in Turkey offers a great potential for energy savings and means lower costs for businesses and higher competitiveness of the economy at global level.
Bio-energy source is hardly exploited at present due to low penetration of the required technology and generally non mature market conditions. Thanks to good availability of wood biomass and a very promising availability of animal waste biomass, this energy source has an important potential of growth over the short-term future, around 10,000-13,000 MW of potential capacity might be installed.